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Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are followed by Russian President Vladimir Putin (L) and French President Emmanuel Macron outside the Vahdettin Mansion during a summit on Syria in Istanbul, Turkey, Oct. 27, 2018.
15 Nov 2018 20:59

Hamidreza Azizi

Why Iran Did Not Attend the Europe-Russia-Turkey Summit on Syria

The leaders of Turkey, Russia, France and Germany met Oct. 27 in Istanbul for a summit to discuss the ongoing developments regarding the Syrian crisis. In a final statement issued after the summit, the four sides emphasized Syria’s sovereignty and territorial integrity as well as the necessity ...

© 2018 Kayhan Ozer/Pool Photo via AP
10 Apr 2018 07:31

Hamidreza Azizi

What Putin’s Visit to Ankara Tells Us about Russia’s Relations with Turkey and Iran

On April 4, the Turkish capital Ankara hosted the presidents of Iran and Russia, who, together with their Turkish counterpart, held the second trilateral summit of Astana Process on the Syrian settlement. Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in Turkey the day before to attend the seventh meeting ...

What Are Ankara’s Options after Taking over Afrin?
1 Apr 2018 15:44

Hamidreza Azizi

What Are Ankara’s Options after Taking over Afrin?

Since the very beginning of its new military adventure in Syria, the Turkish government had declared that its main goal is to secure the areas close to its borders in north-western parts of Aleppo province and to prevent the Kurdish groups – which are deemed by Turkey as terrorists – to ...

Russian ambassador to Turkey Aleksey Yerhov and other officials arrive to lay a wreath in front of the assassinated Russian ambassador to Turkey Andrey Karlov
20 Feb 2018 20:26

Kaveh Afrasiabi

Turkey’s Cooperation with Iran and Russia: Tactical or Strategic?

More than two weeks since the start of Turkey's Operation Olive Branch in northern Syria, lingering questions regarding Ankara's ultimate aim remain. Denounced by Damascus, in a formal complaint to the UN, as a breach of Syrian sovereignty, Turkey's on-going military intervention has raised ...

Members of Free Syrian Army (FSA) attack to hit PYD/PKK positions after the Turkish Armed Forces and FSA liberated the village of Diwan Al Fawqani, located at southwest of Afrin
18 Feb 2018 22:06

Qasem Mohebali

How Turkey Was Deceived in Syria’s Afrin?

About weeks after Turkey started its military operation in Syria’s Afrin region, it seems that Ankara has so far failed to achieve its goals through this operation. During recent days, Turkey’s military advances in northern Syria have remarkably slowed down and its forces have suffered ...

A Turkish soldier is seen in an armored personnel carrier at a checkpoint near the Turkish-Syrian border in Kilis province, Turkey, Jan. 29, 2018.  © REUTERS/Murad Sezer
10 Feb 2018 01:09

Hamidreza Azizi

How Iran Sees Turkey’s Military Operation in Northern Syria

The Turkish military operation in Afrin against Kurdish fighters has sparked different reactions among various parties involved in Syria, based on how each actor interprets the goals and implications of Ankara’s unilateral move. While the United States has appeared to be against the operation,...

People hold a Turkish flag in front of a damaged house after PKK/PYD organizations fired 7 rockets since January 31 from Syria
3 Feb 2018 00:49

Maryam Salari

Turkey’s Tactical Move in Attacking Afrin

Turkey has always played an important and effective role in control or relative containment of the crisis in Syria. One of the most important goals pursued by Turkey in Syria is to keep in check the increasing role of the Syrian Kurds in areas close to the country’s border due to Ankara’...

Pioneering Spirit is seen at the construction site of TurkStream and Russian company Gazprom gas pipelines offshore of Anapa city in the Black Sea on June 23, 2017
10 Nov 2017 21:12

Bahram Amirahmadian

Persian Gulf-Black Sea Corridor: A Major Change in Iran’s Geopolitical Position

In order to facilitate the transit of goods across their territory, countries try to create favorable conditions for regional exchanges.   These attempts will eventually result in revenue for the transit country and help strengthen its political and geopolitical position in the international ...

An Iraqi Kurdish man walks past a mural in the square in the citadel in Arbil, the capital of the autonomous Kurdish region of northern Iraq, on September 26, 2017
8 Oct 2017 20:43

Vali Golmohammadi

Why not Trust in Turkey’s Word on Iraqi Kurdistan?

The leaders of the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan held referendum on the independence of the Kurdistan region on September 25, 2017 despite the strong opposition from the central government of Iraq and the international community. According to the results of the High Elections and Referendum Commission,...

Iraqi Kurds take part in a demonstration at Arbil airport, in the capital of Iraq
6 Oct 2017 23:15

Hamidreza Azizi

Kurdish Referendum Tests Iran-Turkey-Russia Axis

Less than two months after Iran’s Chief of General Staff Maj. Gen. Mohammad Hossein Bagheri paid a rare official visit to Ankara, his Turkish counterpart, Gen. Hulusi Akar, visited Tehran on Oct. 2 to meet high-ranking Iranian officials and discuss bilateral and regional issues. However, although ...

General Staff of the Armed Forces of Iran, Mohammad Bagheri (C) and Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces Hulusi Akar (L) review the troops during his official visit at the Turkish General Staff headquarters in Ankara, on August 15, 2017
26 Sep 2017 21:06

Hamidreza Azizi

New Chapter in Iran-Turkey Ties Could Have Major Impact on Syria

For more than six years, the regional rivalry between Iran and Turkey and their support of different sides of the Syrian civil war have been major obstacles to finding a political solution to the Syrian conflict. However, the recent rapprochement between Tehran and Ankara has renewed hopes for the ...

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan (C) meets with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran Muhammed Cevad Zarif (L) at Presidential Complex in Ankara, Turkey on June 07, 2017
12 Jun 2017 09:06

Vali Golmohammadi

Qatar Crisis: Beginning of Cooperation between Iran and Turkey?

Mohammad Javad Zarif, Iran’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, visited Ankara on June 7 on a not predetermined trip to meet with the Turkish authorities, especially President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Mevlut Cavusoglu, Turkish Foreign Minister, on common regional issues. On the reasons for his visit ...

10 May 2017 10:33

Alireza Bigdeli

Dominant Narratives in Iran-Turkey Ties

Iranian-Turkish relations have historically been very important, and other countries have also benefited and incurred loss from these relations. Now, we see that any closeness or distance in Iranian-Turkish relations can affect Iranian relations with other countries as well. At the same time, we witness ...

Representatives from the Syrian government and the opposition delegation take part in the first session of Syria peace talks at Astana
23 Jan 2017 20:21

Mahmoud Shoori

Interactions among Iran, Russia and Turkey and the Prospects of the Astana Meeting

  Liberation of the city of Aleppo, a trilateral meeting of Iran, Russia and Turkey in Moscow, and the agreement to hold political talks in Astana, capital of Kazakhstan, indicate the beginning of a new phase in the Syrian crisis. Peace talks in Kazakhstan can be a major turning point in the process ...

Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif (L), Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu (R) and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov (C) hold a joint press conference following the Turkey-Russia-Iran trilateral talks on the recent incidents in Aleppo, in Moscow, Russia on December 20, 2016
5 Jan 2017 13:26

Hamidreza Azizi

How Iran sees Russian-Turkish deal on Syria?

  After the Dec. 29 announcement that Russia and Turkey had reached an agreement on a nationwide cease-fire in Syria, the United Nations Security Council on Dec. 31 unanimously approved a resolution welcoming the new effort to help resolve the Syrian crisis. Such unanimous international support,...

Russian President Vladimir Putin (C) greets Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan (L) during an opening ceremony for the newly restored Moscow Cathedral Mosque on September 23, 2015 in Moscow, Russia.
26 Jun 2016 19:19

Vali Golmohammadi

Conflicting Security Interests in Syria and Normalization of Russian-Turkish Ties

Recent remarks by Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan about political and economic costs of tensions in bilateral relations between Russia and Turkey and a subsequent letter sent to Russian President Vladimir Putin to congratulate him on the occasion of Russia’s national day were indicative ...